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Testing Automation With Selenium - Part 1

09.05.2012
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Never send a human to do a machine’s job

Testing a CRM application which I am part of became very difficult over the recent months. There were simply too many usecases. Despite unit testing on the backend services (SOA), bugs crept in on a regular basis considering a lot of logic is on the javascript and other layers of the application.

This is Part 1 of this series explaining how the following problems that I faced during testing were addressed :

  • There were too many combinations of test scenarios

  • Application logic was spread over javascript, front-end, service and database tiers

  • Existing testcases for services/portals are not exhaustive

  • Our Unit testcases verified against static data

  • Enabling/disabling/visibility/invisibility of fields on the front end could not be verified by plain Unit tests

  • Incremental failure built inside JUnit testcases is not always useful. A report of all the issues would be nice.

The itch and the scratch

The Tool was built upon Selenium, Spring and Velocity.

Tool Stack

The following features were built into the tool

Problem vs Feature

Problem vs Feature

Selenium

As part of the web automation, a series of utility methods was written/stolen from various sources. I am sure you’ll find the SeleniumUtils class interesting and useful.

import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import org.apache.commons.collections.ListUtils;
import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;
import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;
import org.apache.log4j.Logger;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.JavascriptExecutor;
import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.TimeoutException;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.ExpectedCondition;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.ExpectedConditions;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.Select;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.Wait;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.WebDriverWait;

/**
 * @author Arun Manivannan
 *
 */
public class SeleniumUtils {
	
	private static Logger logger=Logger.getLogger(SeleniumUtils.class);

	public static void populateDropDown(WebDriver driver, By by, String value) {

		Select select = new Select(driver.findElement(by));
		select.selectByValue(value);

	}

	public static ExpectedCondition<WebElement> visibilityOfElementLocated(final By locator) {
		return new ExpectedCondition<WebElement>() {
			public WebElement apply(WebDriver driver) {
				WebElement toReturn = driver.findElement(locator);
				if (toReturn.isDisplayed()) {
					return toReturn;
				}
				return null;
			}
		};
	}

	public static void populateTextBox(WebDriver driver, By by, String value) {
		WebElement inputElement = driver.findElement(by);
		if ("".equals(value)) {
			inputElement.clear();
		} else {
			inputElement.sendKeys(value);
		}
	}

	public static void checkRadio(WebDriver driver, By by) {
		WebElement inputElement = driver.findElement(by);
		inputElement.click();
	}


	public static void goToTab(WebDriver driver, By by) {
		waitUntilClickable(driver, by);
		driver.findElement(by).click();
	}
	
	public static WebElement waitForVisibility(WebDriver driver, By by) {
		return waitForVisibility(driver, by, 45);
	}
	
	public static WebElement waitUntilClickable(WebDriver driver, By by){
		WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, 45);
		WebElement element = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.elementToBeClickable(by));
		return element;
	}

	public static WebElement waitForVisibility(WebDriver driver, By by, int waitTime) {
		Wait<WebDriver> wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, waitTime);
		WebElement divElement = wait.until(visibilityOfElementLocated(by));
		return divElement;
	}


	public static WebElement switchToNewWindow(WebDriver driver, String iframeId) {
		driver.switchTo().frame(iframeId);
		WebElement window = driver.switchTo().activeElement();
		return window;
	}

	public static String getTextFromId(WebDriver driver, WebElement navigator, String id) {

		//String text = navigator.findElement(By.id(id)).getText();
		System.out.print(id); 
		final WebElement element = findElement(driver, By.id(id),3);
		
		ElementType currentElementType=getCurrentElement(element);
		String text=StringUtils.EMPTY;
		switch (currentElementType) {
		case INPUT:
			text=element.getAttribute("value");
			break;
		case DIV:
			text=element.getText().trim();
			break;
		case TEXTAREA:
			//text=element.getText();
			text =  (String)((JavascriptExecutor) driver).executeScript("return document.getElementById('"+id+"').value","");
			break;
		case SELECT:
			//Select select=new Select(element);
			//text=select.getFirstSelectedOption().getAttribute("value");
			text =  (String)((JavascriptExecutor) driver).executeScript("return document.getElementById('"+id+"').value","");
			break;	
		default:
			break;
		}
		
		System.out.println(" : Text value : "+text);
		return text;
		
	}
	
	private static ElementType getCurrentElement(WebElement element) {
		String tagName=element.getTagName();
		ElementType elementType=null;
		if (StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(tagName, Constants.INPUT)){
			elementType=ElementType.INPUT;
		}
		else if (StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(tagName, Constants.SELECT)){
			elementType=ElementType.SELECT;
		} 
		else if (StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(tagName, Constants.DIV)){
			elementType=ElementType.DIV;
		} 
		else if (StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(tagName, Constants.TEXTAREA)){
			elementType=ElementType.TEXTAREA;
		} 
		else{
			logger.error("Unhandled element type : "+element.getTagName());
		}
		
		return elementType;
	}

	public static WebElement findElement(WebDriver driver, By by, int timeoutInSeconds){
	    try {
			WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, timeoutInSeconds);
			wait.until(ExpectedConditions.presenceOfElementLocated(by));
		} catch (TimeoutException e) {
			logger.error(e.getMessage(),e);
			e.printStackTrace();
			return null;
		} 
	    return driver.findElement(by);
	}
	
	public static boolean isEnabled(WebDriver driver, String eachField) {
		return (driver.findElement(By.id(eachField)).isEnabled());
	}

	public static boolean isDisabled(WebDriver driver, String eachField) {
		return (!driver.findElement(By.id(eachField)).isEnabled());
	}
	
	public static boolean isVisible(WebDriver driver, String eachField) {
		return (driver.findElement(By.id(eachField)).isDisplayed());
	}
	
	public static boolean isInvisible(WebDriver driver, String eachField) {
		return (!driver.findElement(By.id(eachField)).isDisplayed());
	}
	
	
	public static  List<Message> checkEnabledFields(WebDriver driver, List<String> enabledFields) {
		System.out.println("Check enabled fields");
		if (enabledFields==null) return ListUtils.EMPTY_LIST;
		List<Message> messages=new ArrayList<Message>();
		boolean result=false;
		for (String eachField: enabledFields) {
			result=isEnabled(driver, eachField);
			messages.add(ValidationReportUtils.constructFieldValidationMessageFromResult(result, Constants.ENABLED, Constants.DISABLED, eachField));
		}
		return messages;
	}

	
	public static  List<Message> checkDisabledFields(WebDriver driver, List<String> fields) {
		if (fields==null) return ListUtils.EMPTY_LIST;
		List<Message> messages=new ArrayList<Message>();
		boolean result=false;
		for (String eachField: fields) {
			result=isDisabled(driver, eachField);
			messages.add(ValidationReportUtils.constructFieldValidationMessageFromResult(result, Constants.DISABLED, Constants.ENABLED, eachField));
		}
		return messages;
		
	}
	
	public static  List<Message> checkVisibleFields(WebDriver driver, List<String> fields) {
		if (fields==null) return ListUtils.EMPTY_LIST;
		List<Message> messages=new ArrayList<Message>();
		boolean result=false;
		for (String eachField: fields) {
			result=isVisible(driver, eachField);
			messages.add(ValidationReportUtils.constructFieldValidationMessageFromResult(result, Constants.VISIBLE, Constants.INVISIBLE, eachField));
		}
		return messages;
		
	}

	public static  List<Message> checkInvisibleFields(WebDriver driver, List<String> fields) {
		if (fields==null) return ListUtils.EMPTY_LIST;
		List<Message> messages=new ArrayList<Message>();
		boolean result=false;
		for (String eachField: fields) {
			result=isInvisible(driver, eachField);
			messages.add(ValidationReportUtils.constructFieldValidationMessageFromResult(result, Constants.INVISIBLE, Constants.VISIBLE, eachField));
		}
		return messages;
		
	}
	
	public static String captureScreenshot(WebDriver driver, String folder, String fileName) {
		
		File screenshotFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
		File targetFile=new File(folder, fileName+".png");
		try {
			FileUtils.copyFile(screenshotFile,targetFile );
		} catch (IOException e) {
			logger.error ("Error while writing file ",e);
		}

		return targetFile.getAbsolutePath();
	}
}

 

Published at DZone with permission of Arun Manivannan, author and DZone MVB. (source)

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