Should Languages be Multi-Lingual?
I’m currently sitting in the Beijing ThoughtWorks office, and for some reason language is on my mind… =) One of the discussions related to DDD that have turned up several times the last few months at conferences
is how you handle ubiquitous language when your domain is not in English. Since most programming languages are based on English, you end up mixing English and Swedish for example, if you are working with a Swedish domain. Of course, the benefits of working with these concepts in Swedish are very hard to argue against. But the dichotomy between the programming language and the domain language is definitely something that hurts my eyes, so I’m generally not very fond of that approach.
In fact, I haven’t heard anyone come up with a good solution to this problem, and this post is not really a solution either.
One of the things I’ve proposed to make this situation better is to create an external DSL that is fully in the domain language. The implementation of that DSL can then be implemented in English. The main benefit is that there is a clear separation.between the domain language and the programming language. On the other hand, the overhead of creating the DSL and also the complexities involved in translating the domain concepts into programming language concepts can become problematic too.
One interesting idea in Cucumber is the idea that you can easily add new natural languages to write the features in. When it comes to user stories at the level of testing that Cucumber provides, it’s really important to use the right language. So it got me thinking, could you use the same kind of approach in a general programming language too?
As an experiment I took a small example program for Ioke, and translated it into Mandarin, with simplified Chinese characters. Of course I used Google Translate for this, so the translation is probably not very good, but the end result is still interesting. I’m not going to try to get this into my blog, so take a look at the file at github instead: http://github.com/olabini/ioke/blob/master/examples/chinese/account.ik. As you can see there is nothing in there that even reeks of English. If you don’t understand Chinese characters it is probably hard to see what’s happening here. Basically an Account object is created, with a “transfer” method and a “print” method. Further down, two instances of this Account object is created, some transfers are made, and then the objects are printed. But provided my translation is not too crappy, this code should make sense to someone reading Chinese.
Now, this is actually extremely simple to implement in Ioke, since it relies on several of the features Ioke handles very easily. That everything is a message really helps, and having everything be first class means I can alias methods and things like that without any worry. Obviously your language also need to handle non-ascii identifiers correctly, but that should be standard in this day and age.
When thinking about it, something similar to do this can be created in languages like Lisp, Smalltalk, Factor, Io and Haskell - but most other languages would struggle. If you have keywords in your language, it’s really a killer - you would need to branch your parser to make it happen.
Of course, this approach only works when you can simply translate from one word to another. If the writing system is right to left, or top to bottom, it’s much more tricky to create a good translation.
I’m also not sure if this is actually a really good idea or not. It might be. The other thing I’ve been thinking about is how to handle multilingual editing. What if you want to be able to switch back and forth between languages? How can you handle identifiers with more than one name. Would you want to?
Lots of unanswered questions here. But it’s still funny to think about. Communication is the main goal, as usual.
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